(阅读下面的短文,对 10 个题目进行判断,每道题正确答案只有一个。每小题 2.5 分,共 25 分)
When Thomas Keller, one of America’s foremost chefs, announced that on Sept. 1 he would abolishthe practice of tipping( 付 小 费) at Per-Se., his luxury restaurant in New York City, and replace itwith European-style service charge, I knew three groups would be opposed: customers, servers andrestaurant owners. These three groups are all committed to tipping——as they quickly made clear onWeb sites. To oppose tipping, it seems to be anticapitalist, and maybe even a little French.But Mr. Keller is right to move away from tipping—and it’s worth exploring why just about everyoneelse in the restaurant world is wrong to stick with the practice.Customers believe in tipping because they think it makes economic sense. “Waiters know that theywon’t get paid if they don’t do a good job” is how most advocates of the system would put it. To besure, this is a tempting, apparently rational statement about economic theory, but it appears to havelittle applicability to the real world of restaurants.Michael Lynn, an associate professor of consumer behavior and marketing at Cornell’s School of Hotel Administration, has conducted dozens of students of tipping and has concluded thatconsumers’ assessments of the quality of service correlate weakly to the amount they tip.
Rather, customers are likely to tip more in response to servers touching them lightly and leaning
forward next to the table to make conversation than to how often their water glass is refilled——
in other words, customers tip more when they like the server, not when the service is good. Mr.
Lynn’s studies also indicate that male customers increase their tips for female servers while female customers increase their tips for male servers.
What’s more, consumers seem to forget that the tip increases as the bill increases. Thus, the
tipping system is an open invitation to what restaurant professionals call “upwelling”: every bottle of imported water, every espresso and every cocktail is extra money in the server’s pocket. Aggressive upwelling for tips is often rewarded while low-key quality service often goes unrecognized.In addition, the practice of tip pooling, which is the norm in fine-dining restaurants and is becoming more in every kind of restaurant above the level of a greasy spoon, has ruined whatever effect voting with your tip might have had on an individual waiter . In an unreasonable outcome, you are punishing the good waiters in the restaurant by not tipping the bad one. Indeed, there appear to be little connection between tipping and good service .
1. It may be inferred that a European-style service______.
A. is tipping-free
B. charges little tip
C. is the author’s initiative
D. is offered at Per-Se
2. Which of the following is NOT true according to the author .
A. Tipping is a common practice in the restaurant world.
B. Waiters don’t care about tipping
C. Customers generally believe in tipping.
D. Tipping has little connection with the quality of service.
3. According to Michael Lynn’s studies, waiters will likely get more tips if they______
A. have performed good service
B. frequently refill customers’ water glass
C. win customers’ favor
D. serve customers of the same sex
4. We may infer from the context that “upwelling” (Line 2, Para 6) probably means ________
A. selling something up
B. selling something fancy
C. selling something unnecessary
D. selling something more expensive
5. This passage is mainly about __________
A. reasons to abolish the practice of tipping
B. economic sense of tipping
C. consumers’ attitudes towards tipping
D. tipping for good service
It is well known that when an individual joins a group he tends to accept the group’s standards
of behavior and thinking. Many illustrations could be given of this from everyday life, but what is of particular interest to psychologists is the extent to which people’s judgments and opinions can be changed as a result of group pressure. Asch and others noticed that people in a group will agree to statements that are contrary to the evidence of their senses. It would be a mistake to think that only particular changeable people are chosen to take part in experiments of this type. Usually highly intelligent and independent people are used. in a typical experiment, this is what may happen. The experimenter asks for volunteers to join a group which is investigating visual perception. The victims are not, therefore, aware of the real purpose of the experiment. Each volunteer is taken to a room where he finds a group of about seven people who are collaborating with the experimenter. The group is shown a standard card which contains a single line. They are then asked to look at a second card. This has three lines on it. One is obviously longer than the line on the first card, one is shorter and one the same length. They have to say which line on
the second card is the same length as the line on the standard card. The other members of the group answer first but what the volunteer does not know is that they have been told to pick one of the wrong lines. When his turn comes he is faced with the unanimous opinion of the rest of the group—all the others have chosen line A but he quite clearly sees line B as correct. What will he do? According to Asch, more than half of the victims chosen will change their opinion. What is equally surprising is that, when interviewed about their answers, most explained that they know the group choice was incorrect but that they yield to the pressure of the group because they thought they must be suffering from an optical illusion, or because they were afraid of being different.
1. The psychologists are particularly interested in_______.
A. the changes in the attitudes of the people
B. the degree of changes of people’s opinions
C. the result of the experiment
D. the difference in people’s characters
2. People who are usually chosen to take part in the experiments are_______.
A. stubborn and independent
B. knowledgeable
C. ignorant and docile
D. capable of reasoning
3. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. The experimenter and all the members of the group except the victim know the purpose of
the experiment.
B. All of them know the purpose of the experiment.
C. Only the experimenter knows the purpose of the experiment.
D. Only the victim knows the purpose of the experiment.
4. More than half of the victims changed their opinion because_______.
A. someone in the group changed their opinion
B. they thought their eyes must be deceived
C. they thought the group choice was correct.
D. they had been told about the answer
5. The purpose of the author in writing this passage is to_______.
A. illustrate the influence of the group’s pressure on individual’s behavior
B. invite more volunteers to join in Asch’s experiment
C. tell the audience how to perform psychological experiment
D. encourage people to act against the group’s opinion
(一)逻辑推理 (每题只有一个正确选择,本大题共 5 小题,每小题 4 分,共 20 分)
1. 去年某旅游胜地游客人数与前年游客人数相比,减少约一半。当地旅游管理部门调查发现,去年与前年的最大不同是入场门票从 120 元升到 190 元。
以下哪项措施,最可能有效解决上述游客锐减问题? ______
A. 利用多种媒体加强广告宣传。
B. 旅游地增加更多的游玩项目。
C. 根据实际情况,入场门票实行季节浮动价。
D. 对游客提供更周到的服务。
E. 加强该旅游地与旅游公司的联系。
2. 一项时间跨度为半个世纪的专项调查研究得出肯定结论:饮用适量的咖啡对人的心脏无害。因此,咖啡的饮用者只要不过量,完全可以放心地享用。
以下哪项最为恰当地指出了上述论证的漏洞? ______
A. 咖啡的常规饮用量可能因人而异。
B. 心脏健康不等同于身体健康。
C. 咖啡饮用者可能在喝咖啡时吃对心脏有害的食物。
D. 喝茶,特别是喝绿茶比喝咖啡有利于心脏保健。
E. 有的人从不喝咖啡但心脏仍然健康。
3. 软饮料制造商:我们的新型儿童软饮料娃娃乐增加了钙的含量。由于钙对形成健康的骨骼非常重要,所以经常饮用娃娃乐会使孩子更加健康。消费者代表:但娃娃乐中同时含有大量糖份,经常食用大量糖不利健康,尤其是对孩子。
在对软饮料制造商的回应中,消费者代表做了下列哪一项? ______
A. 对制造商宣称的钙元素在儿童饮食中的营养价值提出质疑。
B. 争论说如果对制造商引用的证据加以正确地考虑,会得出完全相反的结论。
C. 暗示产品制造商通常对该产品的营养价值毫不关心。
D. 举出其它事实以向制造商所做的结论提出质疑。
E. 怀疑某种物质是否在适度食用时有利于健康,而过度食用时则对健康有害。
4. A 公司规定,其所属的各营业分公司,如果年营业额超过 800 万,其职员可获得一个月假期的奖励;如果
年营业额超过 600 万元,其职员可以获得 5000 元的奖励,两项奖励可以同时获得。年中统计显示,该公
司所属的 12 个分公司中,6 个年营业额超过了 1000 万元,其余的则不足 600 万元。
如果上述断定为真,则以下哪项关于该公司今年获奖情况的断定一定为真? ______
I. 获得假期奖励的职员,一定获得 5000 元。
Ⅱ . 获得 5000 元的职员,一定获得假期奖励。
Ⅲ . 半数职员获得了假期奖励。
A. 只有 I.
B. 只有Ⅱ .
C. 只有Ⅲ .
D. 只有Ⅱ和Ⅲ .
E. 只有 I 和Ⅱ .
5. 在西方经济发展的萧条期,消费需求的萎缩导致许多企业解雇职工甚至倒闭。在萧条期,被解雇的职工很难找到新的工作,这就增加了失业人数。随着消费需求的增加和社会投资能力的扩张,萧条之后的复苏对劳动力的需求量增加。但是经历了萧条之后的企业主大都丧失了经商的自信,他们尽可能地推迟雇用新的职工。
上述断定如果为真,最能支持以下哪项结论? ______
A. 经济复苏不一定能迅速减少失业人数。
C. 萧条期的失业大军主要由倒闭企业的职工组成。